Wildlife Society Bulletin 13: 110–116. 8. Taylor AR, Knight RL (2003) Wildlife responses to recreation and associated visitor perceptions. The majority of this activity occurs along coastal Alaska where bears congregate to feed on the multiple salmon runs that occur from mid- to late summer, which also attracts anglers. Brown bears (Ursus arctos) are the focus of a growing wildlife viewing industry and are found in habitats frequented by recreationists. Operating Sequence Mercury barometers must be firmly supported, made vertical and given time to adopt ambient temperature before attempting to use them. Главная » Материалы » Инструкции для GoPro Powered by module Blog | Reviews | Gallery | FAQ ver.: 15.1 (Professional) () Метки: Материалы.
Regulating recreation to occur predictably in space and time and limiting recreation in habitats with concentrated food resources reduces impacts on food intake and may thereby, reduce impacts on reproduction and survival. Spatial avoidance includes bears avoiding areas close to humans and leaving areas in response to humans, either when humans arrive or when humans approach within a specific distance. The Windows 10 Upgrade Advisor app can be downloaded from the Windows Store to see if the upgrade is available for your device. Long-term displacement was defined when bears were displaced from the resource during the entire time it was available that year. Although some research has implied that bears habituate in response to recreational activities, habituation is difficult to measure and it is unknown what proportion of individuals habituate and under what specific conditions it occurs. Bears’ avoidance of areas close to humans is often measured by defined zones during scan sampling or by analyzing habitat use identified by recording locations of bears.
However, an influence run showed that brown bear harvest and unreported human-caused mortality were overwhelmingly influential to adult survival at any level other than none and not influential, respectively. The timestamp is only as accurate as the clock in the camera, and it may be completely wrong. Journal of Environmental Management 92: 2287–2294. pmid:21640470 10. Reynolds PC, Braithwaite D (2001) Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism. Our thanks to Dave Gustine, U.S. Geological Survey, for reviewing the Bayesian network model and providing valuable feedback.